Life of Early Cowboy was Hard: JJ cowboy John Layton

As today, Dec 29, is the 140th anniversary of the incorporation of the Prairie Cattle Company I have compiled a couple of related items. The April 30, 1963 issue of the Guymon Daily Herald reprinted the autobiography written by my great uncle John Layton who was a JJ cowboy from 1901 to 1911ish. I have combined their intro with that piece written by Aunt Nora Layton and a few other tidbits and photos.

THE LIFE of a plains cowboy-in the Panhandle’s “early days’” was described by John Layton before his death May 15 1960 in Baca County Colo. His widow now living in Boise City has released his autobiography written shortly before his death  “Johnny typified the kind of cowman this country used to know.” Mrs Layton commented. “One who loved the outdoors and spent long hours in the saddle” 

The autobiography follows

 I WAS BORN in Kendall County Texas in 1881 I lived there until I was 13 years old coming to this country1895 with my family and an uncle and his family.   There were four covered wagons in our train and we were six weeks on the road In the spring of 1890 I got my first job. It was driving a team of mules hitched to a scraper digging a ditch. For this work I got my board and 50 cents a day. 

 Later that year I got a job on a ranch on the Cimarron River. They paid me some wages and sent me to school.

 It wasn’t until the spring of 1901 that I got my big job,  one I stayed with for ten years It was with the Prairie Cattle Company better known as the JJ’s with headquarters at Higby Colo.

AT THAT TIME the ranch had two wagons One was run by Billy Wilson the other by Jack Hardy. I worked about five years with Mr Wilson’s wagon. I got my board and $25 per month having to furnish my own bed roll, saddle blanket and bridle. The ranch furnished plenty of horses and ropes.

John Layton 1905

 I can remember the first mount that was cut out to me. The wagon boss said to me “Now if you can’t ride these horses there is someone else who can” and I knew he meant it and that I had to ride them or lose my job and there weren’t jobs everywhere at that time I had worked only a few months when my checks were raised to $30 per month (without asking for it) and later to $35 which was top wages for a rider.  

What clothes we took with us had to be kept in our bed roll. Mr Wilsow finally was promoted to range boss and my uncle Jim Herrin was made boss of the wagon but, I was called an outside man. Being the outside man meant taking my mount of horses (nine or ten) my bed roll and riding with the wagons belonging to other outfits around the country and gathering any cattle having the JJ brand

SOME OF the outfits I rode with were: Circle Diamond that ranged west of LaJunta and the F.D.W’s.  They ranged from the Cimarron breaks in Union County NM to west of Clayton.

I remember their wagon boss was Buck Miller whose daughter, Mrs Elnora Kuhns still lives in Clayton j I also rode with the Kreagh Brothers (Dick and Jack) wagon who ranged mostly south of Lamar Colo at that time on the Cimarron River in southeast Baca and others I was still with the same JJ wagon after Uncle Jim was promoted to another job and Jim Higgins took our wagon as boss.  

The headstone below is Jim Hagan’s from the Higbee Cemetery south of La Junta. The wagon photo was in an envelope of JJ Ranch pics my Granddad had. The wagon (above)is Jim Hagan’s. The man squatted down by the fire is my Great Uncle John Layton. The Layton Ranch was just a bit across the Colorado line north of Kenton, Oklahoma.
Here is one of my questions. I have wondered if the Jim Higgins listed in the autobiography and Jim Haggans above are the same person. I have seen many JJ references to Jim Haggans but not to Jim Higgins.

As I remember my hardest job was while I was with the JJ’s when the wrangler took sick and Mr Wilson asked me to wrangle. I found that job  included more work than just wrangling horses.  I learned how to stake down the rope corral, also to keep plenty of fuel for the cook be it wood or cow chips

MY LAST job with the company was during the winter of 1910 or 1911. Billy Corbin and I stayed in the camp at the Tubs in the San Canyon near the old Regnier Post Office.  We took care of and doctored a lot of mangey cattle that winter and in the spring of 1911 I went into partnership on a ranch with Bob Cotton.  He and his family moved to Springfield  and we were still in together when Bob died in 1917.  In 1915 I was married to Miss Nora Looney.  We had some mighty lean years here on the ranch but have had some real good ones too.

The Springfield Herald, Volume 29, Number 13, November 5, 1915

 I have sold my calves for $4 a head and I have sold them for $40 per cwt too.  I had a good life the 10 years I rode the range for the JJ and slept in my camp bed.  It was not bad at that time ard looking back now it was fun. Still it is now to me a grand life having a warm house to live in and someone to look after me.

 I STILL ride my horse at times and my jeep a lot and look after things.  But my youngest son still lives here on the ranch and does most of the work. 

 I have outlived most of the boys who rode with on the range with me.  I hope to live long enough to celebrate our Golden Wedding with our three sons and daughters – in – law and our eight grandchildren.

 Some of the boys I rode with for the JJ’s that I have not mentioned were: Claude Whitlock, Bert Crews, Luther Dennison, Jack Stephens, Billy Dude and Jesse Corbin Jim Brazlin, Dave Wright, John May, Claude Ashcraft, John Dabney, Bob Hadden, John Bock, Jim Higgins, Billy Landon,  Edd Warren,  Albino Martinis,  Charley Carson, Sant and Lew Shugart, Lon Case,  Heavy Oldem and Juan Romates, wagon cook.

The Springfield Herald, Volume 26, Number 38, May 2, 1913

Other Prairie Cattle Company Blogs:

Jack Ratliff by Kathryn Ratliff Benes

Editors Note: I’ve often mentioned Jack Ratliff as the other Baca County Wanderer when writing about Orville Ewing. If you search online for Jack Ratliff will also find numerous postcards such as the one below which he sold during his travels. We are fortunate to be able to post the following below from his granddaughter Kathryn Ratliff Benes.

For those of you who read the stories of my Grandfather and Grandmother Ratliff, I wanted to post a picture of my grandfather when he was in his late 80s. It’s difficult for us in the 21st Century to understand the “wandering heart” of many old-time cowboys who grew up in the 1800s. In his younger days he had been a range rider for the large JJ/Prairie Cattle Company. And, even after he married my Grandmother and had my dad and aunt, he often was away from home trading horses and increasing the ranch herd. It was in their blood to be out riding the range, and always hard to settle down to some type of domesticated life. There’s a song by one of my favorite Colorado cowboy singers, Bill Barwick (now passed), that I believe reflects the spiritual relationship of these old-time cowboys who never really could settle down with the people they loved at home. It’s title is Caroline in the Sunset, (I hope this link works on this post) and I believe, although miles apart, that my grandfather continued to love my grandmother, and that she made a promise to wait for him until he was ready to settle down. I hope you love this song as much as I do.
https://www.bing.com/videos/search…
In his last interview (that I’m aware of), published in an Oklahoma Sunday news magazine, Granddad said, “Well, now I’ll tell you, I don’t regret this life I’ve led. I would probably do it again if things worked out the same way. I’ve had a lot of fun and I’ve learned a whole lot about human nature….But I do miss my family. Yeah, I really do,”

Offices of the Prairie Cattle Company

“The largest herd of cattle I ever saw was in the summer of 1888. It stretched north from the mouth of Leon Creek, 25 miles southwest of the present Clayton for 5 or 6 miles. It was accompanied by 2 crews of 12 men each. Cattle belonging in Southern Colorado and the Cimarron River country to the estimated number of 15,000 head made up this great mass of cows, fresh branded calves and steers — old and young — which were being moved to their home ranges. At night the stock was loose guarded. It was too bulky to close up. In this herd were cattle bearing brands of the Prairie Company, the Western Land and Cattle Company (101’s) and the Muscatine Cattle Company, all Scotch companies.” – A. W. Thompson, Editor Clayton (NM) Enterprise

INTRO
For those not familiar with the story. The Prairie Cattle Company exerted great influence over the development of early SE Colorado and Baca County. They were sometimes called the “mother of British cattle companies” since it was the first foreign syndicate to take advantage of the southwestern “Beef Bonanza” of the early 1880s. It was established in 1880 by the Scottish American Mortgage Company, based in Edinburgh, and by the following year it had purchased the JJ spread in southeastern Colorado and the Hall brothers’ Cross L Ranch in northeastern New Mexico. The company’s first big investment in the Texas Panhandle occurred in July 1881, when it purchased George W. Littlefield’s LIT Ranch for $253,000. Included in the transfer were 14,000 head of cattle, 250 saddle horses, and the LIT headquarters east of Tascosa. Subsequently the company added several small holdings to these properties. By the end of 1882 the Prairie Cattle Company owned close to 100,000 cattle and range rights to an unbroken, 300-mile strip of land from the Canadian River to the Arkansas River. We’ll a little bit more on this a little later

I’ve spent  many glorious days at the Steven Hart Library in Denver over the past few years. Much of that time revolving around topics which relate to Southeast Colorado, Boston Colorado, and the Prairie Cattle Company.  According to many early sources all the Prairie Cattle Company records and documents burned which is a bit confusing as in the Steven Hart Museum there is still 7.5 miles of microfilm with records which include the Articles of Association and a record of much day to day business.  They existed from 1880 – 1916 so granted there are many missing years and there.are many pages with a note that said the mice got them but I am not so sure they all burned since there still is the 7.5 miles of microfilm. A fact I am thankful for.  

I noticed something the other day as I was organizing files.  The address of the Prairie Cattle Company in 1880 was different than the one we posted a couple years ago on the Baca County Facebook page.  Not that it really matters, as people and businesses move all the time. Always have, probably always will, but I thought it might be fun to compile some of social media posts and add some to it. When the Articles of Association were filed in Edinburgh Scotland on Dec 29, 1880, the office was listed at 62 Frederick Street Edinburgh.  


Prairie Cattle Company Articles of Association December 29, 1880
Excerpt from Articles of Association showing Prairie Cattle Company place of business being 62 Frederick Street Edinburgh

The only other info I could find on this address was from 1907-1908.  At that point the tenet at the address was occupied by a group of lawyers.  Not sure it’s relevant to our work other than the Prairie Company was still in operation and they don’t appear to be headquartered there any more. 

Here is a shot of  62 Frederick Street, Edinburgh, Scotland today.

The key piece of this which tells me they were loocated elsewhere later is the letterhead shown below.  This letter is one of a series of letters 1915-1917 which began the work dissolving the Scottish syndicate which so greatly influenced Southeast Colorado. Also note their “Telegraphic Address”.

Below is 2 York Place Edinburgh Scotland today. So at least in the later years of the company  this was the home office of the Prairie Cattle Company. (Red Door).

There is another Scottish address, 18 George Street Edinburgh, mentioned by A. W. Thompson in the excerpt below which may indicate a third address occupied by the Prairie Cattle Company. 

 Among the corporations launched in Scotland in 1881 was one known as the Prairie Cattle Company Limited. The corporation, had voted, raised, an appropriated for the purchase of land and cattle in America, no less than 650,000 pounds sterling, over $3,000,000 American dollars. (NOTE: the initial capital raised as shown in Articles of Association above was 200,000 pounds.  There were multiple stock issues after that which I think may have exceeded Thompson’s numbers above)  It was called the Prairie Cattle Company, Limited. Its American office was located in Kansas City Missouri, its registered office and principal place of business, in Edinburgh, Scotland. If indeed in 1881 you had cared to look up the gentlemanly directors of The Prairie Cattle Company Limited, some of whom had been knighted, you would have found them dressed in loose-fitting Scotch tweeds within Dowell’s Rooms, 18 George Street Edinburgh.

18 George Street Edinburgh, Scotland. Today the space looks to be office space in the same building occupied by the Hard Rock Cafe.

To further break it down, a deed on record in Colfax County New Mexico, gives insight into the organization of The Prairie Cattle Company. The deed recites in part that John Guthrie Smith and James Duncan Smith solicitors before the Supreme Court, Scotland and William A. Clark, Muscatine, Iowa were trustees of the Prairie Cattle Company, Limited.

Clark and a Mr. Underwood of Kansas City were bankers and established firm based in Kansas City that operated under the name of Underwood, Clark and Company. This firm during its early years was delegated almost unlimited power in the purchase of lands and cattle. Their acts were approved by a board of directors in Edinburgh. All of the of the general managers of the Prairie company, except one were natives of the the British Isles. The purchases of the all the ranches in Colorado, New Mexico and Texas, however, was left to the discretion of the American’s, either Underwood Clark & Co., or their lieutenants.

Finally, the Trinidad location was the home of ranch managers which were Americans until 1885. After that they imported Scots to run it. The most prominent was Murdo Mackenzie. Interestingly even after Mackenzie became manager of the Matador he continued to live in Trinidad. I guess that was the first instance of telecommuting. Not sure what you would have called it in the 1880s.

In America there were management offices referenced in Kansas City and Trinidad.  I have no documentation on the Kansas City Location, but most references such as Thompson’s Above as well as the one below  list something about the management of Underwood, Clark, and Company of Kansas City. Mr. A. H. “Gus” Johnson became the 1st general range manager in 1881. He held the position for only a year before his untimely demise. Anything the Prairie Company was doing in 1881 was big news. The following account of his death was reported in The Tennessean (Nashville, Tennessee) 11 Jul 1882.

The clipping below doesn’t mention the specific location address, but does indicate the photo was taken at the Prairie Office in Trinidad. 

Clipping courtesy of the Texas & Southwest Cattle Association

 In the 1909 Trinidad Business Directory lists the Prairie Cattle Company Office at 319 W Main, Which is still there. Couldn’t find them listed in any of the other Business directories available at the museum.  The current occupant is a Photo Gallery.

H. G. Glazbrook, the manager of the Prairie Cattle Company was technically “officed” in Trinidad, but I bet this letter from Springfield, CO Attorney, L.H. Alberti, addressed to him in La Junta, on the topic of  the killing of JJ Steers on Butte Creek in 1915 probably got to him.

The Division Headquarters

  So back to A. W Thompson. Albert W. Thompson (For Baca County folk, he was the Sam Konkel of Clayton NM). He was editor and publisher of the Clayton Enterprise Newspaper. He wrote “The Early History of Clayton New Mexico” in 1933. That document is the equivalent of JR Austin’s “A Early History of Baca County.” written in 1936. His early writings also record much of a different part of the Prairie Cattle Co history than we are used to hearing about in Baca County. However, it gives perspective of how large the Prairie outfit really was and provides some perspective on how conversations about the Prairie Cattle Company were and still are very regionalized.  The Prairie had 3 divisions. 

 In 1871 the hall Brothers William James and Nathan established the ranch known as the “Cross L” in northwestern New Mexico.  Their first experience in northwest New Mexico was in 1869 when they trailed a herd of red white and yellow cattle from Texas Across the plains where they wintered them on the Cimarron and the next spring they drove them 300 miles north to then struggling town of Denver Colorado where they were sold for a nice profit. In their drive from Texas, the Halls got across the plains and the Canadian river by the Middle Water then on to Buffalo Springs.  This was later the celebrated site and headquarters the syndicate company also known as the XIT Ranch. This is a location the Halls still claimed until 1882.

In 1873 Jim Hall trailed a bunch of stairs from the Cimarron to Nevada where they were sold. He took Goldust as payments and $38,000 which you brought back with him on a pack horse.  This was later invested in Texas Cattle. Albert W Thompson also tells the story of Bill Metcalf another pioneer of the dry Cimarron and builder miles of fence. Thompson says in 1873 he operated a toll road in a store on a leg of the Cimarron and it was he who furnished the Halls with provisions until they could make cattle sales. 

In 1882 the Cross L was purchased by the Prairie Cattle Company Limited and Division 1 or the Cimarron River Division was created.   It was the first purchase of an American Ranch by the Prairie Cattle Company.  This was the beginning of the great movement to incorporate cattle companies in the American West in an attempt to provide capital and bring ranching in the American west to scale.   Many foreign cattle syndicates came and went but the largest and most profitable of them was the Prairie Cattle Company. In addition to a Scottish headquarters, a Kansas City Office and a Trinidad office they established three Ranch headquarters under distinct and different brands with the Cross L being the first.

The Arkansas River Division was the most northern of the Prairie companies divisions, some 20 miles south of La Junta Colorado (Higbee).  In SE Colorado the stories you hear about the Prairie Cattle Company are about the JJ.  The picture below, with my great uncle John Layton squatted down at the fire is a picture which I found in my mothers basement is an example of conversation about the different divisions of the Prairie Cattle Company.  There never really was discussion of the Prairie Cattle Company. It was always about the JJ. In fact the envelope in which I found this photo is labeled “J J Pictures” no mention of the Prairie Cattle Company.

  Sometimes the terms are used interchangeably, but the JJ was a Division of the Prairie Cattle Company.   Frances Bollacker Keck’s book The J J Ranch on the Purgatory River in Colorado focuses on the Jones family, and the JJ Ranch but barely mentions the other divisions of the  Prairie Cattle Company.    The shortened version of this story is that the JJ was a brand was the namesake of the Jones Brother.   About 1881 cattle reached a higher price than they had even a chain since the war, the price that the Jones Brothers were offered for the herd by Underwood, Clark & Company of Kansas City,  representing the Prairie Cattle Company, was too tempting. No one knew how long these prices would continue. A bird in the hand is worth more than two in the bush, and so Jones Brothers Disposed of all their Holdings to the Prairie Cattle Company. One of these brother’s name Jim– Jim Jones, and dust originated the JJ brand. At the time of this purchase in the portion of Southern Colorado known as the JJ range, nearly all the small owners of the cattle offered Their herds at the same price paid for the Jones heard and they were taken by the same syndicate. The Jones Brothers were among the first to give consideration to the Improvement of the grade of cattle then in Colorado. They imported Shorthorn Bulls from the eastern states, and their herd became one of the finest in the West.

The 3rd Division or the Canadian River Division was an outfit known as the LIT some four or five miles from Tascosa Texas on the Canadian river .  The Texas Historical society records the LIT story but misses the story of the other divisions. Again the story of these three divisions of this gigantic company is hardly mentioned as a whole.   Beyond these three cores ranches which made up the identity of the three divisions of the Prairie Cattle Company were many smaller ranches. Although numerous smaller operations were also purchased it was under the brands of these three ranches, Cross L, JJ, and LIT that the Prairie operated and it was these three in conjunction with the numerous smaller purchases that created the 300 mile north south expanse the Prairie Company controlled.

Clipping courtesy of the Texas & Southwest Cattle Association

By 1886 they were even bigger and the biggest of that time with 124, 212 head of  cows. That is a lot of beef.. Here you also see the influence of other Scottish syndicates such as the Swann and Powder River companies.   

 In the Cimmaron River area of the Prairie Cattle Company Holdings in an area known as the public strip the neutral strip or no man’s land, many other cattle companies foreign as well as American begin establishing a foothold. Below the Cross L and just over the line of no man’s land which is the Oklahoma Panhandle today was established the Western Land & Cattle Company another Scottish company.  They branded with the 101 brand. Downstream 10 miles was the headquarter of the Tower brothers and still further down 15 miles the Muscatine. There were still more but this very interesting 1884 New York Times clipping (below) shows even more of their ambition…they wanted to buy the Panhandle, the neutral strip. Yep,the whole neutral strip.

As I look at these old but well kept buildings, I can’t help but wonder if the current occupants know how much prior tenants influenced the settlement of the American West, Southeast Colorado, Northwest NM and the Oklahoma Panhandle.  Or what about the neutral strip? If they had succeeded in buying it would they have setup another headquarters and how might that have change the development of that area? That’s all for tonight…

The Last J.J. Steer

UPDATED: March 29, 2020- In the American west, it was common practice for early large cattle operations to file on only parcels of land that contained access to water.  This allowed those operations to control  a great deal of the public domain land.  The J.J. Ranch was founded in 1869. By 1879 the JJ controlled about 960,000 acres of land, although they only held title to about 18,000.   Much of the area we know as modern day Baca County Colorado was part of the territory controlled by the .JJ. Ranch.  In 1882 the J.J. Ranch was purchased by the Prairie Cattle Company.

The Prairie Cattle Company, Limited, is sometimes called the “mother of British cattle companies” since it was the first foreign syndicate to take advantage of what has been open range cattle ranching.(1)

This open range cattle ranching is for the most part gone, but it left one enduring legacy: the stereotype of the cowboy. As a symbol of the free and rugged Westerner, the cowboy endures today, although the open range cattle rancher is long gone.

So what about the cattle in this open range environment?  Early on it was the rugged Texas Longhorn.  The mid 1880s began a change to the type of cattle run on this range from the Texas Longhorn to the British-derived breeds of cattle which required less range than Texas longhorns and depended more on haying in winter. This change was pushed by a series of  extremely harsh winters, in combination with drought, in the mid-1880s. These culminated in the calamitous winter of 1886-87, which resulted in the death of approximately 90 percent of the cattle on the open range, an event known as the “Great Die-Off” or sometimes the “Great Die-Up.”(2)

Stories of the Prairie Cattle Company and the J.J. Ranch are familiar to those with any family history in Baca County and there are many Baca county stories told about J.J. ranch and livestock in such books as J.R. Austin’s “Early History of Baca County”, Ike Osteen’s, “A Place Called Baca” and Iris Powell Cowell’s “Bear Tracks and “Cactus Trees: In a Land of Challenge”.  My favorite story may be one recorded in Bear Tracks and Cactus Trees

On another trip when they awakened, Papa had a feeling of being pinned down, although he could feel nothing extra on top of him.  He asked Uncle Jess to try and see what was holding him down down.  Uncle Jess, quietly, a very unusual action for him, peeked out from under the edge of the tarp and let out a quiet chuckle.   ‘There’s a full grown J.J. cow standing right over you with all four feet straddling you.’  he said.  In this case they decided to flap the covers and yell loudly.  The cow almost literally flew off without even touching them.  She didn’t stop until she was well away from those noisy, strange-smelling men.

The following are a couple J.J pictures my Grandad Huckaby had in an envelope. I found them in my Mom’s basement several years ago.

This is also the picture I used for the cover of my book “Cattle and Cowboys: Letters from the 1880s” which is available on Amazon.com
This past fall Lonesome Prairie Publications purchased the Plainsman Herald newspaper in Springfield. The JJ Cowboy Picture above is one we chose to include as part of our Page 1 header (third image from the left above) as it represents part of the fascinating history of Baca County Colorado.

Time never stands still and the magnificent tale of the J.J. Ranch and Prairie Cattle Company soon dissolved into history.   As the Prairie Cattle company was wrapping up their history you saw a whole series of ads in various 1917 issues of the Springfield Democrat Herald such as the January 9, 1917 example shown below.  

Even though the type of cattle began to change in the 1880’s a few of the J.J. longhorns remained in Baca County  into the early 1900’s.  The final tale of the last J.J. steer is told in the Thursday February 17, 1921 issue of the Elkhart (KS) Tri-State News as a reprint from the Dodge City Globe

“The horns of what is said to be the last longhorn steer in Baca County Colorado, if not in the Great Southwest, have been on display at the ‘Palace of the Sweets’ this week, and connected with them is an interesting story of Baca County before it was the agriculture community it now is.  The horns are the property of Ralph Murphy of Topeka, who’s in Dodge City this week on his way home from Baca County.

About 10 years ago a number of Longhorn cattle belonging to the J.J. Cattle Company at that time one of the big cattle concerns in Baca County, The main herd and made for the hills, where they soon became wild and approach was impossible.  They remained Away from the big herd and were seen only occasionally when severe weather and short feed force them down from the hills, and at such time a few of the cattle were caught.

However, three of the cattle, a cow and two steers, clung to the wild and refused to be captured. The J.J. company went out of business and a part of the ranch fell into the hands of Cliff Wills, who about 2 years ago decided to bring in these animals and clear the range of the old JJ brand, offering $10 per head in the chase soon began.

The hunt at first soon promised to be short, for  in a few days the range Riders looped a loop over the cow and led her to the corral of Will’s, where terrified at her strange surroundings she was found dead the next morning.

The second steer fell a comparatively easy victim but not so with the single survivor of the old herd of Texas Longhorns. He was a crafty animal, faster than any horse on the place, having led the pursuing for a Chase of 15 miles thru the Cedar Canyons, and finally eluded them completely, his victory was more complete because of the fact that among those who set out to do away with him were some of the most noted riders of the West — men who were famed for their ability as riders and ropers and who carried away the big prizes at Wild West and Frontier Day Celebrations year after year, and who thought the capture of this lone steer would be only another feather place to easily in their caps. But they derived  very little honor from the chase. The only one of the champions that ever came within roping distance of the Longhorn Monarch turned and fled and dismay when the steer, and place of running in Terror, turned and charged just as the rider was ready to throw in the Fatal noose.

All things must come to an end, though, even the life of a wild steer, and about a week ago, Cliff Wills, owner of the ranch which is about 42 miles south of Las Animas, caught a view of the lone steer through the sites of his rifle and the outlaws career was at an end.

The horns, which are symmetrical as nature will permit to grow, are 42 inches from tip-to-tip and though not as large as many which have been seen, are worthy a place in the den of any lover of the great outdoors in the things of the early days. The host of the animal had change in character from those of an ordinary cow, being more like those of a deer and plenty hard.”

(1)   ANDERSON, H. ALLEN. “PRAIRIE CATTLE COMPANY.” ANDERSON, H. ALLEN, 14 June 2010, tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/dsp01. Accessed 14 Sept. 2017.

(2)  Colorado Preservation Inc,   http://coloradopreservation.org/crsurvey/ranching/sites/rch_contexts_openrange.html.  Accessed 14 Sept. 2017.